Main Article Content

Abstract

Alliaceae (Allium cepa and Allium ascalonicum) and Iridaceae (Eleutherine bulbosa) are widely used as spices, condiments, and traditional medicine. These three species are vulnerable to adulteration because they are morphologically similar in shape and colour. This study aims to identify and authenticate the three samples through anatomical and histochemical approaches. Anatomical and histochemical analyses were performed on fresh sections of the bulbs samples according to standard anatomical procedures with a razor blade and identification of the main compound groups using specific reagents. Anatomically, the three samples had similar patterns and cell organelles (cell nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell wall). Histochemical techniques identified the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, lipophilics, and terpenoids groups. Histochemical techniques can be applied in identifying the compound groups of the three samples and can be used as an alternative in testing the quality control of traditional medicine raw materials.

Keywords

Allium cepa Allium ascalonicum Eleutherine bulbosa traditional medicine standardisation

Article Details

How to Cite
Syahruni, R., Abdul Halim Umar, & Halim, N. A. R. . (2024). Anatomy and Histochemistry of Alliaceae and Iridaceae Species: Quality Control of Traditional Medicine Raw Materials. Jurnal Jamu Indonesia, 9(1), 31–40. https://doi.org/10.29244/jji.v9i1.309

References

  1. Assani, A., Moundanga, S., Beney, L., & Gervais, P. (2009). Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration. Annals of Botany, 104(7), 1389–1395. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp256
  2. Boix, Y. F., Victório, C. P., Defaveri, A. C. A., Arruda, R. D. C. D. O., Sato, A., & Lage, C. L. S. (2012). Glandular trichomes of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Anatomical and phytochemical analyses of leaf volatiles. Plant Biosystems, 145(4), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2011.584075
  3. Bora, K. S., & Sharma, A. (2009). Phytoconstituents and therapeutic potential of Allium cepa Linn.– A review. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 3(5), 170–180.
  4. Brechú-Franco, A. E., Laguna-Hernández, G., De la Cruz-Chacón, I., & González-Esquinca, A. R. (2016). In situ histochemical localisation of alkaloids and acetogenins in the endosperm and embryonic axis of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. Seeds during germination. European Journal of Histochemistry, 60(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2016.2568
  5. Chakraborty, A. J., Uddin, T. M., Matin Zidan, B. M. R., Mitra, S., Das, R., Nainu, F., Dhama, K., Roy, A., Hossain, M. J., Khusro, A., & Emran, T. B. (2022). Allium cepa: A treasure of bioactive phytochemicals with prospective health benefits. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2022, 4586318. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4586318
  6. David, R., & Carde, J. (1964). Histochimie—Coloration differentielle des inclusions lipidiques et terpeniques des pseudophylles du pin maritime au moyen du reactif Nadi. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Dês Séances de I’ Academie Dês Sciences Paris, 258, 1338–1340.
  7. Destanoglu, O. (2022). Discrimination and authentication of geographical origin of Turkish Taşköprü garlic by investigating volatile organosulfur compound profiles and multivariate analyses. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 46(4), 1152–1163. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-0527.3423
  8. Fernandes, S., Gois, A., Mendes, F., Perestrelo, R., Medina, S., & Câmara, J. S. (2020). Typicality assessment of onions (Allium cepa) from different geographical regions based on the volatile signature and chemometric tools. Foods, 9(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030375
  9. Furr, M., & Mahlberg, P. G. (1981). Histochemical analyses of laticifers and glandular trichomes in Cannabis sativa. Journal of Natural Products, 44(2), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.1021/np50014a002
  10. Ghodke, P., Khandagale, K., Thangasamy, A., Kulkarni, A., Narwade, N., Shirsat, D., Randive, P., Roylawar, P., Singh, I., Gawande, S. J., Mahajan, V., Solanke, A., & Singh, M. (2020). Comparative transcriptome analyses in contrasting onion (Allium cepa L.) genotypes for drought stress. PLOS ONE, 15(8), e0237457. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237457
  11. Golubkina, N., Romanova, O., Romanov, V., Krivenkov, L., Shevchenko, T., Murariu, O. C., Vecchietti, L., Hamburda, S. B., & Caruso, G. (2023). Varietal differences of yield, morphological, and biochemical parameters of Allium cepa L. under precipitation excess in different phenological phases. Stresses, 3(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses3030038
  12. Harborne, J. B. (1998). Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (2nd ed.). Chapman & Hall.
  13. Johansen, D. A. (1940). Plant microtechnique. McGraw-Hill Publications Book Company.
  14. Kadam, P. V., Yadav, K. N., Karjikar, F. A., Patel, F. A., Patidar, M. K., & Patil, M. J. (2013). Pharmacognostic, phytochemical and physicochemical studies of Allium sativum Linn. Bulb (Liliaceae). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(9), 3524–3531.
  15. Kamarudin, A. A., Sayuti, N. H., Saad, N., Razak, N. A. A., & Esa, N. M. (2021). Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. Bulb: Review of the pharmacological activities and its prospects for application. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(13), Article 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136747
  16. Kamarudin, A. A., Sayuti, N. H., Saad, N., Razak, N. A. A., & Esa, N. M. (2022). Induction of apoptosis by Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. Bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on human retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 284, 114770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114770
  17. Kim, J.-H., & Baik, S.-H. (2016). Molecular identification of economically motivated adulteration of red pepper powder by species-specific PCR of nuclear rDNA-ITS regions in garlic and onion. Food Analytical Methods, 9(12), 3287–3297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-016-0519-1
  18. Kumar, M., Barbhai, M. D., Hasan, M., Punia, S., Dhumal, S., Radha, Rais, N., Chandran, D., Pandiselvam, R., Kothakota, A., Tomar, M., Satankar, V., Senapathy, M., Anitha, T., Dey, A., Sayed, A. A. S., Gadallah, F. M., Amarowicz, R., & Mekhemar, M. (2022). Onion (Allium cepa L.) peels: A review on bioactive compounds and biomedical activities. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 146, 112498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112498
  19. Kumar, P., Bhushan, A., Gupta, P., & Gairola, S. (2022). Comparative morpho-anatomical standardization and chemical profiling of root drugs for distinction of fourteen species of family Apocynaceae. Botanical Studies, 63(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40529-022-00342-z
  20. Lee, M.-S., Su, T.-Y., Lien, Y.-Y., & Sheu, S.-C. (2017). The development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid authentication of five forbidden vegetables in strict vegetarian diets. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44238
  21. Marrelli, M., Amodeo, V., Statti, G., & Conforti, F. (2019). Biological properties and bioactive components of Allium cepa L.: Focus on potential benefits in the treatment of obesity and related comorbidities. Molecules, 24(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010119
  22. Moldovan, C., Frumuzachi, O., Babotă, M., Barros, L., Mocan, A., Carradori, S., & Crişan, G. (2022). Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of shallot (Allium ascalonicum): A systematic review. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9, 903686. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.903686
  23. Oliveira, J. P. S., Hakimi, O., Murgu, M., Koblitz, M. G. B., Ferreira, M. S. L., Cameron, L. C., & Macedo, A. F. (2018). Tissue culture and metabolome investigation of a wild endangered medicinal plant using high definition mass spectrometry. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 134(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-018-1408-7
  24. Raeisi, S., Sharifi-Rad, M., Quek, S. Y., Shabanpour, B., & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2016). Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) fruit and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague) seed extracts in semi-fried coated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets for shelf-life extension. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 65, 112–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07.064
  25. Sass, J. E. (1951). Botanical microtechnique (2nd ed.). The Iowa State College Press; Constable & Co.
  26. Saviano, G., Paris, D., Melck, D., Fantasma, F., Motta, A., & Iorizzi, M. (2019). Metabolite variation in three edible Italian Allium cepa L. by NMR-based metabolomics: A comparative study in fresh and stored bulbs. Metabolomics, 15(8), 105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-019-1566-6
  27. Ślusarczyk, J., Wierzbicka, M., Suchocki, P., & Kuraś, M. (2015). Ultrastructural changes in onion (Allium cepa L.) root tip meristem cells treated with selol and sodium selenate (IV). Caryologia, 68(4), 306–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2015.1109934
  28. Syahruni, R., Umar, A. H., Todingbua, D., Semba, Y., Irmawati, D., & Ratnadewi, D. (2023). Morphology, anatomy, and histochemistry of three species of Jatropha: A contribution to plant recognition and selection. Plant Biology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.13567
  29. Umar, A. H., Ratnadewi, D., Rafi, M., Sulistyaningsih, Y. C., & Hamim, H. (2021a). Callus of Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Ex W.T.Aiton: Initiation, regeneration, secretory structure and histochemistry. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 948(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/948/1/012051
  30. Umar, A. H., Ratnadewi, D., Rafi, M., Sulistyaningsih, Y. C., & Hamim, H. (2021b). Metabolite profiling, distribution of secretory structures, and histochemistry in Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. And Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Ex W.T.Aiton. Turkish Journal of Botany, 45(5), 421–439. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-2009-43
  31. Wu, T., Kerbler, S. M., Fernie, A. R., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Plant cell cultures as heterologous bio-factories for secondary metabolite production. Plant Communications, 2(5), 100235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2021.100235